The World Order has been more dynamic due to the unprecedented developments in international affairs in the last century-ranging from multipolar, bipolar and unipolar. The US has enjoyed unilateral and unparalleled status in international affairs. But as history repeats itself, the might of American power is visibly diminishing due to neoconservative and imperialistic policies, and new centers of power are emerging to shape the “multipolar world order”. Naturally, whenever any major power or state has shown its ambition to conquer the world and set up a hegemonic empire, it has created resistance from other forces or alliances of forces. This clash of power has been the characteristic of all the periods, though; the 20th century is significantly an example of an unprecedented struggle between the countries to acquire world supremacy. However the emergence of new powers was natural, the status of the US could remain unchallenged, had Washington transformed its attitude and policies from a unilateralist to a multilateralist approach. But the unilateral and unjustified policies of the US on several accounts from the Iraq war to climate change crises have only unveiled fissures in its power structure. The most controversial issues, which have placed the US at the opposite pole from the rest of the world, are energy crises, the Iraq war, climate change, financial crises and globalization. These factors have rather proved a catalyst in the shift from a unipolar to a multipolar world.
In the future multipolar world order, power would not rest with a few major countries but with several countries. Each having its specific prominence will have assertive say in world affairs. Besides the US, Japan, China, the EU and India would have economic strength. Iran, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, members of the African Union and Brazil would have leverage due to their vast energy resources. Russia would have both advantages. Some countries would have importance due to their geostrategic location like Pakistan, Central Asian States, Ukraine, and Turkey as these countries are located on the energy routes through which energy resources will be routed to the rest of the world. Besides, international organizations like UNO, World Bank, and IMF; regional organizations like SAARC, EU, SCO, ASEAN, AU and NGOs including environmental, social and humanitarian would be on the list of power centers. Here a question arises; whether the multipolar world with so many power centres could ensure peace and security? There are serious concerns because the previous multipolarity had led to two World Wars. The answer is assuredly affirmative. The future multipolarity is not going to be like the previous one based on the independent power base of countries. On the contrary, emerging multipolarity is the age of growing interdependence and mutual cooperation. The countries would not be asserting their influence individually but through regional and international organisations on the basis of democratic principles. The strength of economy, technological advancement, availability of energy and human development depend upon the cooperation of all countries and civilisations. And a multipolar world can best serve this purpose by creating balance in exercise of power and boosting competitive atmosphere in technological and economic fields. In this regard, a scholar of Chinese People Association for Peace and Disarmament, Yu Zhongrong says, “A multipolar world is characterised with coexistence of multiple forces and multiple entities.” To be precise, collective security, mutual cooperation and inter-dependence would be the earmark of multipolar world. To achieve this purpose, all the existing and emerging powers need to develop consensus on some prerequisites. The international relations are required to be democratised. And to achieve the goals, UN is a best forum. Firstly its charter’s basic principles of equality of states, majority as core of democratic system and mechanism of institutions shall be followed in true spirit in dealing with all international issues. Secondly, UN’s authority must be safeguarded and enhanced to play its role to balance the power of various forces and to find just and rational solution to international conflicts like Palestine, Kashmir, Iraq, nuclear proliferation and humanitarian crises. It shall facilitate dialogue and exchange of views between different civilisations and cultures of all religion, region and countries. As the chronicles of international politics have proved that hegemony and imperialism are the biggest threat to world peace and are the root causes of conflicts and wars, the multipolar world of ‘inter-dependence’ and ‘coexistence’ is a bid to create a harmonious world of economic stability, social justice, collective security and common development. In this way, human will see the world to embark on the path of peace-the ultimate goal.
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