The Global Energy Transformation

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Human actions including soil erosion, burning fossil fuels, and greenhouse gas emissions have significantly harmed the planet’s climate over the past 50 years. Fossil fuel combustion over this time has emitted significant amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases, which have trapped heat in the lower atmosphere of the globe and impacted our planet’s climate. Statistics reveal that while the ravages of global warming and its effects on climate change varied in how they affect different locations, overall, the world has experienced an increase in its average temperature of 0.85 degrees centigrade during the past 100 years. The rise is anticipated to reach acceptable standards by 2030, according to these statistics as well. And if this happens, it will have terrible long-term effects on both human health and the environment of the planet. We are therefore charged with spreading awareness of the risks posed by global warming to the general public to avert energy crisis. The global energy system is undergoing fundamental changes that will have a significant geopolitical impact on practically every nation. The primary source of energy now worldwide is renewable. Renewable energy has experienced the fastest growth of any energy source due to technological advancements and cost reductions. Even without accounting for their contributions to the fights against air pollution and climate change, many renewable technologies are now cost-competitive with fossil fuels in the power sector. An unstoppable momentum for a worldwide energy change is being created by these factors.

Fundamental changes in the world’s energy system will have a big geopolitical influence on almost every country. Renewable energy is currently the world’s main energy source. Among all energy sources, renewable energy has grown at the highest rate because to technological developments and falling costs. Many renewable technologies are already cost-competitive with fossil fuels in the power sector, even without taking into consideration their contributions to the campaigns against air pollution and climate change. These elements are generating an irresistible push for a global energy transition. Geopolitics will be most strongly impacted by the global energy change. It is a change that will assist remake the geopolitical map of the twenty-first century. The conventional map of energy geopolitics, which has dominated for more than a century, will not accurately reflect the new geopolitical reality that is emerging. The energy transformation will change how governments relate to one another, the likelihood of conflict, and the social, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to geopolitical instability, just like fossil fuels did for the past 200 years.

These far-reaching effects have not previously been considered in a comprehensive manner in any international forum or setting. To raise awareness and deepen understanding of them, IRENA established the Global Commission on the Geopolitics of the Energy Transformation, with the support of the Governments of Germany, Norway and the United Arab Emirates. Most nations may expect to greatly strengthen their energy independence, and fewer economies will be threatened by unstable energy prices and supply lines. Some nations that rely substantially on the export of coal, gas, or oil may need to make adjustments to prevent negative economic repercussions. Many developing economies will have the chance to surpass centralised grids and systems that rely on fossil fuels. The decentralisation of the energy supply made feasible by renewables will also be a potent tool for democratisation, empowering individuals, regional communities, and urban areas. Countries must make plans to improve the chances of a seamless transition while preparing for the changes that lie ahead. The energy transition will also bring about new difficulties. If countries that export fossil fuels do not reinvent themselves for the new energy era, they may face instability; a quick transition away from fossil fuels may cause a financial shock with serious repercussions for the world economy; workers and communities that depend on fossil fuels may suffer; and there may be risks related to cybersecurity and new reliance on specific minerals. Despite challenges, the energy transformation will ultimately lead to a more prosperous and sustainable world by tackling climate change, combatting pollution, and fostering economic growth.

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