Proliferation of Digital ICT’s


We are living in a world of narratives and these narratives influence the perception of the public and shape our reality. Media plays a significant role in building these narratives and shaping our perception of the happenings across the world. Nation-states often employ the mass media for building a perception in their state’s favor and against their enemies, such as the propaganda both, the US and USSR, carried out during times of the cold war. This media-led agenda setting technique is categorized as the tactic of hybrid warfare or part of the psychological operations that use social and traditional media to influence popular perception and international opinion. The case of Pakistan and India is no different because both states are nuclear-armed rivals and in order to keep their conflict under the nuclear threshold, they are engaged in irregular warfare.

Today, media is everywhere. With the advancement and proliferation of digital information communication technologies (ICTs), there is a drastic increase in the usage of these digital platforms for the dissemination of information, especially news stories. With the inherent power of media to influence our thoughts, the proliferation of mass media, especially digital media, has rendered it a powerful tool and even a weapon to control the minds of the people. Technological developments, like the expansion of cyberspace and social media users, have multiplied the threats of informational and psychological warfare and provided enhanced tactics and strategies to actors for achieving their goals of hybrid warfare. Now wars are not only fought in the conventional battleground but also on these digital grounds.


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