Hybrid war: challenges to Pakistan


Despite living in today’s modern and globalized world of interconnectedness and complex interdependence along with the presence of international institutions, which aim to ensure peace and promote free trade between States in the international arena, the conventional war still can take place. Moreover, it is no longer the primary means of destroying any country. The security environment of the 21st century is characterized by the hybrid nature of warfare.  furthermore, hybrid warfare can be defined as “the incorporate range of different modes of warfare, including conventional capabilities, irregular tactics and formations, terrorist acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder”.

Meanwhile, the strategy of hybrid warfare is actually old-fashioned, but it is the innovative advancement that makes such warfare more powerful, more influential, and more effective, and it can also be said that the strategy of warfare is favored by the advanced world. the hybrid warfare strategies include incognito activities directed by state or non-state actors to weaken and disrupt the internal stability and international image of the targeted state by means of conducting terrorist activities, and making misleading perceptions against any state in the international community. Furthermore, the use of different conventional and unconventional means of warfare, including in the political, socioeconomic, and intelligence domains, can lead to the division of the country on religious, partisan, and racial premises.

With the rise of today’s hybrid warfare tactics and tools, enemy nations don’t need to fight on milestones to accomplish their goals. Hybrid warfare tactics are utilized to harm the harmony and strength of a state by targeting its economic interests and weakening the national cohesion, especially a nuclear state on the grounds that the detrition abilities of such a state keep it away from any immediate military confrontation.

Pakistan, as the only nuclear power in the Muslim world and an important regional state, is facing different threats of hybrid warfare. Threatening nations, especially India, are using fifth-generation warfare tactics against Pakistan, which include sneaky behaviors, dominant constructed discourses, and media propaganda to create a bad image of Pakistan in the international community.

India has been steadily advancing a hybrid war against Pakistan for a long time. Recently, an expanded Indian contribution has been observed in financing and supporting the Successionist groups in Pakistan, leading monetary disruption by lobbying and politicizing international organizations, such as FATF (financial action task force) which is presented to be a politicized approach towards Pakistan. In addition, New Delhi was involved in the disinformation crusade against Islamabad.

Meanwhile, a prominent Indian Newspaper “Hindustan Times” repeatedly spread fake news about developmental projects like CPEC and the increasing closeness of China, Pakistan, and Russia. In this post-truth era, The Indian electronic and digital media is indulged in propaganda against Pakistan, meanwhile, the issues of Balochistan has been their main target of interest, where they exaggerate facts and constructed a fake perception, and tried their best to internationalize The use of modern tools such as social media has fueled the ongoing sixth wave of insurgency in Balochistan. Multiple Instagram pages, YouTube channels, and Twitter accounts, operating from New Delhi, are attacking Pakistan’s socio-political image internationally, and domestically it is contributing to a decline in national cohesion.

Moreover, in the province of Sindh, the Indian media and political elites are more concerned with the basic rights of the minorities and engaged in constructing a regime of truth to deviate public opinion by declaring Pakistan as an unsafe country for the minorities. Reality no longer hidden from the world in ultra-nationalist Indian territory is leading India towards an ethnocratic state, with an ideology of “India belongs to Hindus only”. This can be observed with their racist fascist laws, such as the Citizens Amendment banning the hijab.  There are many events to cite, but now Karnataka events have exposed their fascist faces to the world. The prominent scholarly person as “Noam Chomsky” in his remarks also declared Modi’s India as it is moving from “Secular democracy to Hindu ethnocracy”.

Unfortunately, the sports field was also targeted by the rival state, cancellation of bilateral cricket series of Pakistan and England, and as well as the cancellation of New Zealand tour at the final moment is another example of Hybrid war against Pakistan. An investigation eventually led to the conclusion that India was involved in this particular incident and that the equipment used to send threats to the guest team belonged to India.

From sports fields to economic and diplomatic destruction, a hybrid war has been waged against Pakistan. However, Pakistan, which has built effective capabilities to deter atomic and ordinary hostilities, faces numerous threats from hybrid warfare. National unity is key to making progress against the elements of the threat. As a nation, we must fight this war. A firm unity between the nation and the state narrative is required since we are defined by the war of fake narratives in the post-truth era.

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