Energy Security Challenge: A Non-Traditional Security Threat in Pakistan
Pakistan divulges numerous challenges such as deficiency of incorporated energy planning ability and aptitude, unfair energy blend with profound dependence on energy imports, the supply-demand fissure, requisite of better sustainability and affordability in the power sector, the nonexistence of energy-saving culture, paucity of human capital in the energy sector, and grave problems of dishonesty and commissions in energy sector ventures
Non-traditional security (NTS) challenges are the perils to the survival and welfare of the nations or the general public and are mainly caused by non-military sources. In 20th and 21st centuries, the dawn of an era of nuclear technology, the creation of nation-states, the development of international regulation, and the escalation of economic collaboration amongst different countries eschewed the direct military conflict and novel kinds of security challenges known as the non-traditional security threats commenced to grow which are equally atrocious for a nation like the military rows in 1994 the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) issued its yearly statement that branded security as a major issue for human life and sanctity. This annual report sparked new discussions globally to classify the security and its limits and the approach to describe much of the 1990s with the United Nations and its agencies coordinating several proposals to tackle human security challenges globally.
Today, energy security has become a colossal concern at both national and international levels. During WW1, the significance of energy security and the need for access to better and developed energy resources were recognized for the first time. This quest for advanced energy resources made man fight quite a few combats during WW1, WWII. As early as the 1940s, energy impediments were exercised to restrict the rivals. Other than that the exploitation of the energy resources determined the results of the wars. In the later years of WW2, Germany suffered the dearth of oil and Hitler had to declare, “To fight, we must have oil for our machine”. The concept of energy security has developed in recent years and the conventional notion that the required energy resources mustn’t be present outside the geographic borders has transformed. In other words, a state must rely on its own energy resources, not the energy imports. The contemporary viewpoint of energy security requires the energy supply to cover three facets of sufficiency, regularity, and affordability.
Pakistan practically brings in a third of its energy resources in the form of oil, coal, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) from developed countries that might cause energy insecurity in the future. Moreover, imported energy resources exhaust Pakistan’s foreign exchange reserves while exposing its economy to global energy price shockers and suffer inflation. The government must introduce new policy steps like targeting for solar, wind, bio-energy, small-hydro and strive to oomph up the 2030 objective from 5% of the entire production to a minimum of 15%. Pakistan, in 2017, utilized 25% of its thermal fuels in power production, and the domestic sector used 48% of the ultimate electric power sold on the grid in the same year. The everyday consumer directly utilized an extra 10% of the thermal fuels. On the whole, the domestic sector used more than a third of thermal fuels (35%). If Pakistan does not make any considerable oil or gas unearthing soon, it will largely use the imported fuels to meet its increasing needs, which is not economical. For a foremost effect on the energy security of Pakistan, the household energy utilization should be shifted to distributed solar energy and the energy efficiency must be enhanced by improving the building insulation standards. For that reason, Pakistan immediately requires determining the regulations for distributed solar power and should ascertain extensive approval of net metering and distributed solar power ways out suggested by the government-owned electric power distribution companies. Furthermore, the access to subsidized financing to persuade the owners to revamp their houses with superior insulation should be enhanced.
Energy security is now recognized as an essential constituent of national power. South Asian states including Pakistan are far behind in the energy security estimation since the world’s developed nation consumption of Pakistan is predictable to boost in the near future and the demand can rise by almost eight percent ensuing demand of practically114,000 MW in total by near 2030. The people of Pakistan ought to be responsible to tackle the challenge of economic growth. Pakistan also needs to advance its organizational infrastructure and the operational competence of its power plants and refineries to facilitate utmost capacity consumption. The succeeding compulsion is to surmount the federal-provincial and inter-provincial disparities having political tinge and must guarantee the cordial ways out to facilitate the unobstructed continuation of the gas, petroleum, and hydropower projects. To compensate for the domestic deficit in the gas, oil, nuclear, and coal sectors, the next requirement is to expedite the projects with international cooperation, unconstrained by local conditions and external demands. For oil marketing companies (OMCs) margin augmentation is indispensable to energy security in Pakistan to ascertain an incessant provision of petroleum merchandise from the regulated sector.
Pakistan divulges numerous challenges such as deficiency of incorporated energy planning ability and aptitude, unfair energy blend with profound dependence on energy imports, the supply-demand fissure, requisite of better sustainability and affordability in the power sector, the nonexistence of energy-saving culture, paucity of human capital in the energy sector, and grave problems of dishonesty and commissions in energy sector ventures. It is crucial to amplify the share of nuclear energy plus other substitute energy resources in Pakistan to develop a reasonable energy mix. Pakistan direly needs to preserve the exploitation of energy and reroute the same to run its industries and tackle the energy losses, energy pilferage, and energy circular debt as a top priority. The introduction of effectiveness for industrial equipment, transportation, and domestic appliances and a change in strategic culture also needs of hour to practice conservation. In a nutshell, Pakistan must formulate a short and long-term energy plan in addition to an energy structure that should be founded on excellent human resources and proficiency to strategize, design, engineer, produce commission and maneuver energy plants, supply, in short, the complete energy network. Pakistan needs a Pakistani way out of Pakistan’s energy crisis.