Challenges to the national integration of Pakistan


“National integration indicates national consciousness, a common national consensus and common national identity, where regional subcultures get interacted into a national political system” in order to keep intact their cultural, political, religious, and ethnic sub-identities, equally enjoying their socio-economic rights and opportunities, which is essential to enhance the national integration process. Cultural diversity, as well as indigenous languages, are the basis for national integration, in which the diverse people are amusing and powerful in every way. The provinces of Pakistan are rich in social and cultural diversity, as well as ethno-lingual, and the national integration event should run backwards in engaging the citizens of the province, serving as a unifying force for harmony and coexistence, thus enabling central power to play an important role in regional integration. Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, and Pashtun nationalities remain at the heart of building Pakistani nationalism, which is crucial in strengthening the foundations of nationalism. In this system, it is also recognized that contradictory factors make the integration of different social structures into a rising task in a mixed Pakistani society, where the multiplicity of cultural and national symbols differs from their competing interests in achieving certain goals to ensure high shares within small national resources. The competition has made national unity more difficult. Since the creation of Pakistan, the country has been plagued by many challenges: bad governance; social and economic inequalities and powers; political and racial segregation; racial and linguistic diversity; weak political system and leadership; ideological identity; religious extremism and sectarianism; modern confusion; national identity problem; and threats to local integrity from neighboring countries. The mistrust between the federal and the provinces, which is overwhelmed by a sense of deprivation, is compounded by the problems exerted by hostile external resources. These challenges have hampered the process of national integration in Pakistan. Knowledge of separation often comes from closed societies with internal divisions created by its linguistic, racial, class and religious rust. The trend of sectarian extremism under the seclusion of Shia sects, Deobandi and Barelvi continued to threaten national unity and challenged the birth of the Pakistani nation. Religious extremism in Pakistan has made it difficult for ordinary scholars to analyze, refute, or talk about it because of the fears of compassionate people in the country. This empathy is rooted in a spirit of nationalism and sectarianism in strong sects. It is difficult to distinguish religious zeal from mainstream religion with superstition. It is equally difficult to distinguish between violent extremism and sectarianism. In the depths of these lines of error, sub-nationalists try to exploit the loyalty of dissatisfied groups to their advantage. Pakistan’s desire for national unity will remain strong unless a high-level approach is adopted where the sense of belonging comes from the grassroots. Promoting a culture of equality instead of favoritism and discrimination is also central to achieving the goal of national unity. National integration is the process of uniting different cultural and social groups within the borders of a united country in order to create a sense of unity among them which is essential to national unity. The combination of languages, cultures, and races is regarded as an important factor in laying the groundwork for the concept of nationalism, in which ideals for all people encourage all sectors of society to contribute positively to nation building. In contrast, any feeling of discrimination, linguistic and cultural divide, extremism, superstition, and socioeconomic decline are barriers to national growth. In fact, the link between feelings of unity and human development has become the focus of globalization. These two elements are connected. There will be no feelings of cohesion without the development of people and the development of people without the feelings of cohesion. The study finds that in Pakistan, successive governments have not been able to achieve the desired results in human settlements to eradicate social and economic inequalities in Balochistan, within Sindh, South Punjab, and the national belt. The political and social challenges facing the country are compounded by provincial nationalism, racism, bad governance, and inequality in the provision of education and health. As a result, the lines of social, cultural, and political error remain the dominant feature of Pakistani society.

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